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Study on and with white Boxer Bonn/Germany
Of the Biology-Intensified Course of the Timetable"12
The Breeding of the German Boxer under consideration of the color white
Presented by Sabine Bauer April 2001
II. Main page
1. The white Boxer in the change of the Time
1.1. Ancestors of the Boxer
1.2. Story of the white Boxer
1.3. Today's situation of the white Boxer
2. Color genetic
2.1. Inherit of the color white
2.2. Biochemical inherit of the color white
3. Conclusion between the color white and color white relate health Problems
3.2. Deafness and Blindness
III. The End
IV. Informative books and distributors
In the Boxer breed section the number of breed able candidates is
Dissenting lower and lower since these are selected trough excluding
possible health problems.
A German Boxer which is supposed to be bred has to be tested of Hip
dysphasia (HD), congenital Heart problems, Spondylose und
Kryptorchismus. On top of this he has to be tested for character
strength and function, and pass an energy sufficient test. Dogs that
show more then 1/3 white body coloring are excluded from the
breeding program. How it ended that way and if this today is still
reasonable, shall show and be explained in following study.
The number of breed able Boxers that lass this selection is more and
more dissenting, which also shows in a strong in dissenting of members
willing to follow the ZTP testing (1998: 663 members, 1999: 528 T.,
2000: 467 T.) (Dates of the Studbook 1998, S.137 and Stöhler,
Zuchttauglichkeitsprüfungen, Boxer-Blätter 2/2001, S.89). This
miniaturizes the gene pool, which trough a comparative high amount of
insets is very low already. With the begin of the ZTP for hip and
Kryptorchismus at year 2000 was already tried to minimum an overly
Under the given circumstances it would be in interest of the breed,
to upsize the breed able population of the German Boxer, by bringing
in healthy white or Scheck Boxer, meaning, dogs of which ground
color is more then 1/3 white, to again include in the breed program.
To simplify this we in the following documentation speak only of
white boxers even though this includes the Scheck.
In this study we refer first to the beginning of the boxer were we
state were the dog was originally from and History of it.
In the second part will then be dealt with the theme how the color
white is inherit and how it is passed on, to then finally trough
the imagined health problems seeming to relate to the color white
specifically the deafness.
1. The white Boxer at the change of time
1.1. Ancestors of the white Boxer
The ancestors of today's boxer were foremost the Brabanter
Bullbeisser, also called Bärenbeißer and the English bulldog.
The Brabanter Bullenbeißer hunt -and Sweat dog, which had to
constantly bite the bears on and on until the dogs and its owners
got tired of it".
It was a middle sized breed, had a wide chest and a short massive
head, a short up-wards tipped nose, and" cropped ears and of course
the undershot bite, Their color was usually yellowish or brown
lining called brindle. Also black mask around snout (all statements
of: Räber, Enzyklopädie der Rassehunde, 1993, S.409 after Fleming,
Der vollkommene Deutsche Jäger, 1719)
Again and again was the English Mastiff bred into the Bullenbeisser
(Räber, 1993, S.411).
An important role played also the English bulldog, since of the
start of the planed breeding of the boxers were English Bulldogs re
functioned (Räber, S.411). The white presented markings has our
boxer from the English Bulldog , which shows again that back then,
almost all white boxers, were an identical with Bulldogs shown at
shows in Germany (Räber, S.411 nach Strebel, Die deutschen Hunde,
1905). Dark ones on the other hand reminded more toward the old
As parents of all boxers we name today Mühlbauer's Flocki und
Flocki was the Son of Tom, an English bulldog male and a Scheck
Metawas white with dark head plates. Her parent’s, Piccolo v.
Angertor und Blanka v. Angertor, where also white. Blanka's sire was
the already named, the English Bulldog-male Tom. (Räber, S.412+414)
Meta von der Passage Mühlbauer's Flocki
1.2. History of the White Boxer
If we face the facts about the important role the white boxer
played at the start of the breed
Look at for example, (the breeds mother of the boxers), naturally we
have to ask our-selves why today so many people don't know of the
existence of these.
The Chronic of the Boxer Club e.V. Muechen
Out of the Chronics of the Boxer-Clubs e.V. Sitz München (BK) is to
understand, that at the main Club meeting (HVS) begin of 1927 was
decided, black and white and Scheck, of which the ground color is
identified as white, no longer to register these in the
studbook.]."(Stockmann, Chronics des BK, BB 5/95, S. 448)
But 1934 was that decision taken off again, after Frau Stockmann,
which influenced the boxer breeding with her kennel „v. Dom" has
influenced this, and has radically defended the Scheck she bred with
(Räber, Enzyklopädie der Rassehunde, 1993, S.415). 1933 she wrote in
the Boxer blaetter, that , Type and healthy building would be more
important then color, and over the meaning beauty is still to
fight. (Räber, S.415) even other Boxer-lover were of this opinion.,
so that 1936 some one wrote in the Boxer blaettern „the color
fashion has in our breeding time with assurance damaged the breed..
The color of our boxer is and will stay personal preference,”
(zitiert in Räber, S.415)
But this did not stop, that 1937 on the HVS meeting in München „the
number of Scheck's which were allowed to be weaned were
limited"(Stockmann, Chronics..., S.461).
Begin of 1939 was the Reichsfachgruppe „Deutsches Hundewesen" named
as independed Reichsverband. With this they became underwritten the
Oberkommando of the Heeres (Reichs Army). This lead to, the
reguation that Scheck’s were forbidden to be produced or bred. 1. Juli
1941 was this expanded to the black and also white boxers by which
those unwished colors had to be killed at birth at ones."
(Stockmann, Chronic, S.465). White or Scheck was not a good
camoflash color for a military war dog. The black boxer was taken
out of breed program because the were produced by a schnauzer dog.
for the boxer club was the black color was breed-strange and Summit
therefore could not to be recognized any longer. (Stockmann, Ein
Leben mit Boxern, 1987, S.126)
This regulation was never changed again, up until end of the 70's,
when the new animal protection law came out ,in which is stated
besides other points, that no animal is to be killed with out any
reason other then the animals welfare. The Boxer-Clubs breeders
tried to work against this law, with trying to find out if the can
get reason over if it is genetically and health wise excusing to
keep on killing white boxers, by Prof. Dr. Wegner ( Tierärztliche
Hochschule Hannover), (Wegner, Kleine Kynologie, 1995, S.273).
But Prof. Dr. Wegner answered, „that he himself discriminate the
killing of white boxers plain out of disliking the color.
The coloring white is at no reason to be linked to genetic defects
nor is it linked to any miss build (Wegner, S.274).
, since 1.1.1979 white puppies are to be registered in the Summit
studbook again, but are not to be bred with.
1.3. Today’s Situation of the white Boxers
Even with the new animal protection law, which exists now for 20
years, through today we still don't see many white boxers. Many
people never even seen one at any time. How can this be possible? As
of, when combining two of both parents which where colored but
genetically would be passing on white pup's , after the Mendelschen
law 25 % of white pups will be born. (look at „ Vererbung der weißen
This is only to explained that many breeder combine only two
partners that not genetically pass on the color white, also a huge
number of breeders is still to this day still killing white puppies
right after birth, with the remark in the studbook in mind, that
those were to weak to survive.. Others just claim that they had no
white pups in there litters.
Some of our breeder who do wean their white pups practice this
still, but only on males since those could pass on the
defect ,Kryptorchiden, which again would higher the fault rate at
the litter registered.
An average of only 21 % of the white pups that were born and weaned,
were listed in the studbook, (Studbook of the BC). Honestly that
number is probably even lower since nobody really knows how many are
born and just disappears. In our kennel we had 8 white pups of which
2 were stillborn which is reasonable numbered and reflect the rate
at boxers, which as of now lies by 26,5 % (Gerwin, Das
Zuchtgeschehen im Jahre 2000, BB 4/2001, S. 243).
That means, that a minimum of 52, 5 % of the white boxer is still
The number of white surviving boxers registered at the studbook
increases constantly since, 1979, even the percent rate is still
very low, how you can see at following statistic over number of
white and colored boxer registered puppies at the studbook listed
from 1979 until 1998.
Sum of white and colored puppies registered in the studbook:
Colored White All together
1998 2409 96,3 % 88 3,7 % 2321
1995 2733 98,5 % 42 1,5 % 2691
1990 2368 99,2 % 18 0.8% 2350
1985 2668 99,9 % 4 0.1% 2672
1979 3509 99,9 % 4 0,1 % 3513
(Dates out of the studbook of BC from listed years)
In the next statistic you can see that more female were weaned then
Summary of sexes of registered white puppies:
1998 48 40
1995 24 18
1990 11 7
(Dates out of the studbook of BC from listed years)
The white ones like noticed before, are not to be bred with, and are
not allowed to participate at shows. But are allowed to prove
themselves since 1996 in working trails also can be titled on winner
shows in the working field. After all, Kryptorchide are al-lowed to
be shown at those trails to.
At the „ Deutschen Jugendmeisterschaft 2000” placed the white boxer
male „Blanco v. Ochtenumdeich" even the 3. Place. (Zawatzki, 2.
Deutsche Jugendmeisterschaft 2000 in Oldenburg, BB 7/2000, S.526).
2. Color Genetics
2.1. Inherit of the white color
The colors of the boxer are inherited under the Mendelschen law. The
boxer has at all times a ground color of either yellow or brindle,
of which brindle is dominant over yellow (fawn) (Schleger,
Hundezüchtung in Theorie und Praxis, 1986, S.197).Undependable of
the ground color, the color white is inherited true white markings.
Which in different mass covers out the ground color?
Little white, again is more dominant over lots of white (Schleger,
S.199). the white marking is autosomal recessive inherit, wile the
gene for the ground color is incomplete dominant ,meaning that dogs
which are called, heterozygote, have white markings (Burns und
Fraser, Die Vererbung des Hundes, 1968, S.70). How independent the
difference of the white markings on a heterozygote animal is, is
undefined. The reason for that is not yet cleared, but it is assumed
that this points to the today's modifizierender
Genes"(Burns&Fraser, S.70). In all cases is noticed that the
markings start on chest ,paws, then on belly snout and tail tip.
When more massive white markings are noticed, then its spread over
legs and following around neck. (Burns&Fraser, S.70).
For example for the inherit of the white color is listed the
studbook records of the kennel v.d. Burg Medinghoven:
= Male = White or Scheck
=Female = Colored with white markings
= Colored with almost no white markings
The Rezessivität of the white markings gene is at this studbook easy
to determine, since in the first litter, is the knowingly not white
throwing homozygote Male, „Baron v. Schloß Fasanerie" the sire,
which also does not show any white markings on him. Like expected no
white pups were born in this litter.
Interesting though, most of the pups had massive white markings also
had white legs necks and lots of white on chest and heads .This
litter showed more white then following litters, which bred out of
heterozygote combination. The dam of this and next litter had white
markings. „Eika v. Bleibach", Sire of the second litter „Xerxes v.
Markgrafenschloß"is a yellow male with white markings, which has
proven in past litters to produce white puppies... In this litter
where 3 white puppies born. This shows that the marking white
Is” recessive, otherwise one part of the parents had to be white.
In all 5 litters were only white puppies born when both parent had
white marking the both could had passed on.
Also states the overall number of white puppies in the last 4
litters counted together, were parent each were heterozygote exactly
25 %; that makes it after the „Mendelschen Laws" to be expected
The Autosomalität is not clearly to be recognized at this studbook.
Even though the inherit of the white coloring gene must be
autosomal, because if would be an x-chromosomal (=gonosomaler)
inherit, no colored male could be white marked, since the y-
Chromosome is „gene empty" and on top of the x-Chromosome then only
would lie the gene for the ground color.
The most ruling in two colored boxers by which the coloring
example gold yellow and brown red are not included.
The gene for the ground color has the Allele G = brindle and y =
The gene for white color has the Allele S = no white and sw = white.
Summit then is out of following genotypes and the to it belonging
color of the Phenotypes:
Brindle with out white markings GG SS or Gg SS
Brindle with white markings GG Ssw o. Gg Ssw
White scheck with ground color brindle GG swsw o. Gg swsw
Yellow with out white markings gg SS
Yellow with white markings gg Ssw
White Scheck with ground color yellow gg swsw
On following are 3 females shown out of the „E" litter of the kennel „von der Burg Medinghoven":
Ev Esca Esther
Ev is a female with the Genotype „gg SS", she has
only on chest a little white,. This female will not pass on
Esca hast the Genotype „gg swsw ". She is completely white but
already has developed pigment spots all over body. This pigment
spots which with aging are expected to become more intensive.( this
is noticed at colored pups with white markings too), which also are
born with a pink nose, growing up, that color changes to black and a
fine nose line usually disappears completely.
Esther as a Genotype „gg Ssw "which has relatively lots of white
markings will pass on white pups.
How consistent is the white coloring rules after the „Mendelschen
Laws” after following list:
o.Abz. = colored with out white markings ( o.Abz =with out markings)
m.Abz.= colored with white markings ( m. Abz.= with markings)
Genotype of parents Phenotype of Parents Genotype of puppies Phänotyp of puppies
1. SS und SS o.Abz. & o.Abz. SS 100 % o.Abz.
2. SS und Ssw o.Abz. & m.Abz. SS und Ssw 50% o.Abz.
3. Ssw und Ssw m.Abz.&m.Abz. SS und Ssw und swsw 25 %
o.Abz., 50 % m.Abz. und 25 % weiß
4. swsw und SS weiß & o.Abz. Ssw 100 % m.Abz.
5. swsw u. Ssw weiß & m.Abz. Ssw und swsw 50 % m.Abz.
u. 50% weiß
6. swsw u. swsw weiß & weiß swsw 100 % weiß
(Comparison, the Inheritance of Marking Pattern in the Boxer Breed,
At the moment, after the first 3 possibilities of breed combinations,
Notice that, possibility #4 of a white breed partner will produce
As you can see the possible numbers of white or white marked
puppies, can be exactly calculated.
That's why a Statistic over possible numbers of white offspring from
A male is not very relevant... when the percent rate of white
Offspring from a white inherit male is different, that's reasoned by
only, that either more females which are not white inherit were
presented for the breeding or way higher numbers of white pups are
still killed before reaching registration of these. Also, notice of
this Statistic, those males producing lots of puppies, that the
percent rate of white puppies is even higher, since by those males a
higher number of above listed effects do come together. Also is it
clear that males that do not pass on white colorings will be favored
in breeding, because form the 11 here pictured males 5 of them are
not white passing. That makes it 50 %. Even though in a litter were
both parents are colored but also are white passing, only 25 % not
white inherit puppies are born.
For example is on following page is a Table, build from dates from
computers from 21.12.00 (published at the BB 1/2001, S.12/13)
listed. In following Table but is only spoken of males that produced
more then 170 puppies.
Name of sire
ZB-Nr. Number of pups white %
Peter v. Kiliansblick 191840
Ibsen von der Sembacher Flur 195218
Boy v. Hochwald 195310
Portus von der Friesenperle 197741
Robin von Maximilian 199343
Gito du Clos de Maix 200646
Fausto von Santana 201262
Buddy von Süd-West 204294
Roy van Sapho's Hoeve 205121
Plato van de Hazenberg B-666784
Urban van de Hazenberg B-770420
The only interesting fact is, what you can tell on hand of a data
like this, is, if the male even pass on white offspring or not. If
he passes it on he always passes on the same amount of white pups.
Only will not pass on with a not white passing female, none at all,
and with a white passing female about 25% white pups,
2.2. Biochemical passing on of the color white
The white color of a dog is developed of different chemical actions
that means there be more then one reason why a dog is white.
Carrier of the color is a pigment, of which the chemical ground base
is Melanin. The Melanin is an oxidative Reaction with help of the
Enzymes Tyrosine's out of Amino acid Tyrosine.
Is missing one of the components of one or both reaction partners,
Both, Tyrosine or Tyrosine's, will not allow any coloring to come
Dogs that are missing Amino acid Tyrosine are Albinos, because even
if Tyrosine's is present, those can not build pigment. Those dogs
have red eyes, red because the highly blooded background of the eye
Missing the Tyrosine's, then only a small portion Tyrosine through
another Mechanism Melanin can oxidant. This is only linked o the
eyes, meaning such animals otherwise can be completely white.
Which biochemical Mechanism inherits the coloring white is still to
today not known. Some assume though that a local small amount of
lack of Tyrosine's is responsible for the white markings. (Schleger,
Hundezüchtung in Theorie und Praxis, 1986, S.199)
But at no case are the white boxers Albinos, since the do have dark
eyes, dark noses and black masks and lips and even spread over the
whole body dark pigments. Partly the even have brindle or fawn
plates or markings.
3. Conclusion between the white color and possible health problems
The white boxer being more prone to health problems and allergies is
still not proven to be true, even can not be proven at the moment
since there are not enough animals to test from.
Out of own experience can we state that a white boxer is at no cause
more prone to health problems or allergies then the colored one. The
oldest Boxer female out of our own kennels as of today 6 years old
and resides in south France, were the sun shine is of higher risk
and still she has not even skin problems.
This experience becomes even stronger noticing other breeds which
are white colored like the Boxer, as for example, the Dalmatian or
the Bullterrier (Juraschko, Populations-genetische Untersuchung der
Congenital deafness at Dalmatians, 2000, S.25), even those breeds
are actual in no case unhealthier. The Bullterrier is noticable
even stronger and healthier. (Burns&Fraser, Die Vererbung des
Hundes, 1968, S.204).
The Dalmatian carries a specialty in the Purinstoffwechsel, of why
he specifically produces kidney and bladder stones. This specialty
has no other breed. (Wegner, Kleine Kynologie, 1995, S.147)
The second mistake or fault of the Dalmatian are the blue eyes we
find at times one or both sides... some of the white and Scheck
boxers do carry one or two blue eyes also. (Dietz, 02.01.2001), wile
colored boxers are not known to have blue eyes. (Rezewski,
langjährige Zuchtleiterin im BK, 20.04.2001). Dogs with blue eyes
are supposedly having more eye problems and seem more often deaf
(Wegner, Kleine Kynologie, 1995, S.247/248 and Juraschko,
Populationsgenetische tests, 2000, S.100/101). That's why
Dalmatians which have blue eyes are excluded from breeding. If the
Gene for the blue eye is combined with the gene for white coloring
is now tested at the Tieraertztlichen Hochschule Hannover. Of the
Deafness of the Dalmatian we will refer in the next table.
We over and over tried to breed out the color white at boxers, for
example the kennel „Ben Satan" von Dres. Menzel and the Italian
kennel „Virmar". But those boxers showed because of the missing white
in coat, a high quality loss in vitality of type and lack of bone
structure and color (Bosi, Die Farben vom Boxerfell und Brinkmann,
Weißerbigkeit, BB 12/1996, S. 966), so strongly that these
breeding's were stopped.
Stubbornly kept up the believes of boxer professions, that the white
boxer is deaf and blind, not all but most of them. But why that
would be that way, nobody could ever explain. We where just expected
to accept that as is, besides, we would need to look up the
Dalmatian where we could see that this is a fact. Because we have to
admit, the Dalmatian just as the boxer is of white color and second,
a small percent number of these Dalmatians are deaf.
But then Hirschfeld proved with test breeding in 1956, that the
fiction , combination deafness and a white coat, are in no way to be
combined (Burns&Fraser, Die Verer-bung des Hundes, 1968, S.101).
This was proven also in the year 2000 at the Veterinary University
Hannover. To prove that, the where analyzed with help of Variance
components, counting's and complex Segregation analyzing hearing
test results of Dalmatians. Stated that, were of relation between
the noticeable congenital, sensorineurale deafness and the coat and
eye color, even existing of colored plates or markings, sex and the
incest coefficient where tested. Result was, that the Allel sw,
that is genetically fixed to the Dalmatians, can not be kept
responsible for the congenital, sensorineurale deafness of the white
boxer "(Juraschko, Populationsgenetische study of the congenital
deafness of the Dalmatian, 2000, S.105), that means, the deafness of
the Dalmatian is undependable from color inherited. But was found a
significant Association between noticing the blue eyes and the
congenital, sensorineuraler deafness. (Juraschko, S. 100/101). The
blue coloring of eyes though, does seem to come together with some
of the eye problem and seems associated with this coloring.
(Wegner, Kleine Kynologie, 1995, S.248).
A Lot speaks of that this is related to the boxers too. Notice,
English Bulldogs from where the white color comes from do not have
hearing problems (Preston, Geschäftsstelle des ACEB, 14.01.2001),
even this breed is bred with lots of white. It seems suspicious that
the white boxer of which the English bulldog is closest
Ancestor of, to should develop these problems. Assumption is though,
that white boxers with blue eyes could just like some Dalmatian
develop these hearing or vision problems.
With acknowledging this study, we only can admit that we can't
actual hold noting against to reconsider the white boxer back in the
breed program, to improve the gene pool. Because even we would not
like to take any risk , we could do the first step set up a rule
that the white ones are only to be bred to boxers which wont pass on
the color white, since bred that way, only colored pup' would be
born. Also could this be started under scientific guidance,
that way competent influence could state clear which positive or
negative influence the white boxer has on the breed plan.
But I believe that with this study I could clear fiction from fact,
that the white boxer is more prone to deafness or blind and even
more unhealthy then colored ones. The only boxers that are
assumingly are deaf or blind could be the ones with blue eyes. Those
animals should be declined the way in to the studbook and maybe
should not be bred with.
Positive Effects would be the acceptance of white boxers for the
ZTP and ZTP shows, and at any reason be controlled breed plan,
because even white boxers show faults and favors of there parents.
At some whites show the favors of parent’s even stronger trough
Genetic, mostly even stronger then the colored littermates.
Literature- and Quellenverzeichnis
• Bosi, Tomaso: Die Farben vom Boxerfell, in: International Boxer Magazine
• Boxer-Klub e.V. Sitz München: Computerauszug Zuchtbucheintragungen bis ZB-Nr. 218033 am 21.12.2000, in: Boxer-
Blätter 1/2001, S. 12-13
• Boxer-Klub e.V. Sitz München: Zuchtbücher 1979-1999
• Brinkmann, R.: Weißerbigkeit; Ursachen, Vererbung und Bedeutung, in: Boxer-Blätter 12/1996, S. 966-967
• Burns, Marca und Fraser, Margaret N.: Die Vererbung des Hundes, Grundlagen einer erfolgreichen Hundezucht, Reutlingen, 1968,
Oertel & Spörer
• Dietz, Silvia; Hanau: mündliche Auskunft vom 02.01.2001
• Fleming: Der vollkommene Teutsche Jäger, 1719 zitiert nach H. Räber, 1993
• Gerwin, Inge: Das Zuchtgeschehen im Jahre 2000, in: Boxer-Blätter 4/2001, S. 242-244
• Juraschko, Kathrin: Populationsgenetische Untersuchung der kongenitalen Taubheit beim Dalmatiner, Hannover, 2000, Dissertation
an der Tierärztlichen Hochschule Hannover
• Pariseau, Beth: The Inheritance of Marking Pattern in the Boxer Breed, 1998, http://frontpage.lightspeed.net/bixl/marking.htm
• Preston, Jutta; Oberhausen: mündliche Auskunft vom 14.01.2001
• Räber, Hans: Enzyklopädie der Rassehunde, Band 1, Stuttgart, 1993, Franckh-Kosmos Verlags-GmbH & Co.
• Rezewski, Karin; Bremen: mündliche Auskunft vom 20.04.2001
• Schleger, Walter und Stur, Irene: Hundezüchtung in Theorie und Praxis, Ein genetischer Leitfaden für erfolgreiche
Rassehundezucht, Wien, 1986, 2. Auflage, Jugend und Volk Verlagsgesellschaft m.b.H.
• Stockmann, Friderun und Möller, Theo: Chronik des Boxer-Klub e.V . Sitz München von 1895 bis 1956 in: Boxer-Blätter 5/1995, S.
• Stockmann, Friderun: Ein Leben mit Boxern, Weiden, 1987, Gollwitzer
• Stöhler, Alfred: Zuchtleiterin und AZKW informieren, Zuchttauglichkeitsprüfungen, in: Boxer-Blätter 2/2001, S. 89
• Strebel: Die deutschen Hunde, 1905 zitiert nach H. Räber, 1993
• Wegner, Wilhelm: Kleine Kynologie, Konstanz, 1995, Terra- Verlag
• Zawatzki, Norbert: 2. Deutsche Jugendmeisterschaft in Oldenburg, in: Boxer-Blätter 7/2000, S. 526-527